Drivers are spending an average of 34 hours a year stuck in jams during peak periods in Birmingham, according to traffic information company Inrix.
Researchers calculated that the direct and indirect costs of hold-ups reached £31 billion last year, at an average of £968 per driver.
Congestion is the most severe in London – drivers spend an average of 73 hours a year stuck in traffic. Manchester is the second most congested UK city, followed by Aberdeen, and Edinburgh is at number five.
Inrix chief economist Graham Cookson, said: “Despite Brexit, 2016 saw the UK economy remaining stable, fuel prices staying low and employment growing to an 11-year high, all of which incentivises road travel and helped increase congestion.
The cost of this congestion is staggering, stripping the economy of billions, impacting businesses and costing consumers dearly.
To tackle this problem, we must consider bold options such as remote working, wider use of road user charging and investment in big data to create more effective and intelligent transportation systems.”
(Image: Simon Paul Felton)